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Italian Canadians as Enemy Aliens: Memories of World War II – Documents

Documents


MAKER
Government of Canada

DATE
October 17, 1942

CREDIT LINE
Courtesy of the Bacci Family

Prisoner’s Receipt for Cash, Fredericton Internment Camp, October 17, 1942. The receipt is for $30.00. It is unclear if this receipt is for money Ruggero Bacci received from his wife or for money he sent to his wife.

Internees who were under sixty years old did manual labour or vocational work. Others worked where they were needed. Internees were paid by the Canadian government 25 cents for a day’s work. Internees were not required by the authorities to work every day. In addition, internees could earn money informally by doing camp chores for others, like laundry. Those who were handy, also made things, like wood carvings, and sold them to other internees. Internees could also receive money from their families which would be credited to their camp accounts.

This system is described by Mario Duliani in his book The City Without Women. Duliani notes that money (paper and coins) was not permitted in camp. Instead, he describes a system where each internee had an account opened through the “Official Accountant”. Against this account, the internee would be issued cardboard notes/chits valued at 5, 10, 25 cents and one dollar. This money could be used to purchase items from the camp canteen such as toothpaste and cigarettes.

Some letters suggest that internees could also send money earned in camp to their families.

For another receipt, see LICEA2012-0002-13.

MAKER
Comptroller, Custodian of Enemy Property

DATE
July 09, 1943

DIMENSIONS
Receipt: 4 x ca. 7.75 inches.
Letter: 10 x 8 inches.

CREDIT LINE
Courtesy of the Bacci Family

Correspondence, comprising a cover letter and cash receipt, regarding payment of administration fee of $4.30 owing to the Custodian of Enemy Property for the management of Ruggero Bacci’s file, July 9, 1943.

Post-release, many internees were charged by the Custodian of Enemy Property (CEP) an administration fee for the handling of their affairs while interned. The CEP was a branch of the Canadian government that oversaw the administration of assets belonging to internees and other enemy aliens. Acting as a trustee for the internee/enemy alien, the office and its agents also protected the interests of the creditors. The CEP would pay off an internee’s debts by selling his or her property or businesses. It also collected money owed to internees by others. Families of internees often did not have access to the husband’s assets and bank accounts. As a result, families often had to negotiate with the CEP for stipends for daily subsistence or use of assets like an automobile. In some cases, where assets were lacking, the CEP divested itself of any interest and left the families to fend for themselves. Each accounting firm hired by the CEP would bill an internee for administrative costs even though internees did not ask for the CEP to be involved.

This document forms part of a collection of documents and other materials on loan by the Bacci family. The letter measures 8 x 10 inches, while the receipt is 4 x ca. 7.75 inches.

MAKER
H. Stethem

DATE
April 28, 1941

CREDIT LINE
Library and Archives Canada, RG 117, Vol. 657, File 3927

Notice of Release for internee P.626 Giuseppe Coscarella. Dated April 28, 1941. One page, typewritten.

The form provides information regarding Giuseppe’s release from Petawawa Internment Camp ― April 25, 1941 at 7:25 a.m. It also includes conditions of his release such as duties of reporting in his hometown of Niagara Falls, ON. The form was signed by H. Stethem, Colonel, Commissioner of Internment Operations.

MAKER
G.W. McPherson

DATE
September 17, 1940

CREDIT LINE
Library and Archives Canada, Custodian of Enemy Property, RG117, Vol. 657, File 3898

This memorandum was written by G.W. McPherson, Counsel for the Custodian of Enemy Property, regarding Carlo Scarabelli.

Scarabelli was interned for a brief period of time — just over 2 months. Other records indicate that he was an accomplished chef, employed as the executive chef at the Chateau Laurier Hotel in Ottawa. This document seems to suggest that after his release he was a “Travelling Inspector for the C.N.R. hotels” to which the Chateau Laurier belonged. It is unclear what the role of Travelling Inspector entailed and whether it was specific to the food services of the hotels. Regardless, the document does indicate that the activities and actions of internees continued to be monitored after their release.

The Capital Trust Company was the agent of the Custodian of Enemy Property (CEP) in this case. CEP was a branch of the Canadian government that oversaw the administration of assets belonging to internees and other enemy aliens. This government office served a dual function. Acting as a trustee for the internee/enemy alien, the office and its agents also protected the interests of the creditors. The CEP would pay off an internee’s debts by selling his or her property or businesses. It also collected money owed to internees by others. The office charged the internees for their services, to reclaim their expenses, although the internees did not have a choice in whether the CEP took over their affairs or not. In this case, the fees amount to $5.60.

MAKER
Government of Canada

DATE
ca. 1940

CREDIT LINE
Library and Archives Canada, Custodian of Enemy Property, RG117, Vol. 656, File 3853

The document references the family of Italian-Canadian internee Joseph (Giuseppe) Visocchi. Dependents of internees were able to apply for government relief — although, it appears several were refused early on by the Montreal office. Harry Hereford, Dominion Commissioner, wrote about this issue and asked that it be corrected. His letters appear in several of the Custodian of Enemy Property files, as families were not entitled to relief until all assets had been consumed.

The Custodian of Enemy Property (CEP), a branch of the Canadian government, oversaw the administration of assets belonging to internees and other enemy aliens. This government office served a dual function. Acting as a trustee for the internee/enemy alien, the office and its agents also protected the interests of the creditors. The CEP would pay off an internee’s debts by selling his or her property or businesses. It also collected money owed to internees by others. Families of internees often did not have access to the husband’s assets and bank accounts. As a result, families often had to negotiate with the CEP for stipends for daily subsistence or use of assets like an automobile. In some cases, where assets were lacking, the CEP divested itself of any interest and left the families to fend for themselves.

In this case, there were no assets and the Visocchi family had to apply for government relief. A review of their circumstances, as indicated in the document, notes the approval of a monthly entitlement of $11.83 to support Visocchi’s wife and seven minor children.

Memorandum for Mr. McPherson, re. A. Bertone [sic], July 10, 1944, Ottawa, ON

MAKER
P.H. Russell

DATE
July 10, 1944

CREDIT LINE
Library and Archives Canada, Custodian of Enemy Property, RG117, Vol. 670, File 5035

This memorandum was written for G.W. McPherson, Counsel for the Custodian of Enemy Property, regarding Antonio Bertoni. The memo is signed by P.H. Russell. Attached to the memo is a typewritten copy of a letter sent by Bertoni’s wife.

The Custodian of Enemy Property (CEP), a branch of the Canadian government, oversaw the administration of assets belonging to internees and other enemy aliens. This government office served a dual function. Acting as a trustee for the internee/enemy alien, the office and its agents also protected the interests of the creditors. The CEP would pay off an internee’s debts by selling his or her property or businesses. It also collected money owed to internees by others. Families of internees often did not have access to the husband’s assets and bank accounts. As a result, families often had to negotiate with the CEP for stipends for daily subsistence or use of assets like an automobile. In some cases, where assets were lacking, the CEP divested itself of any interest and left the families to fend for themselves.

This document reviews the situation pertaining to the management of Bertoni’s affairs by the CEP, while he was interned. Specifically at issue is the fee of the CEP agents in the case — Price, Waterhouse & Co. The document identifies a disagreement between the agents and the Custodian’s office, as to the payment of fees, which they are both trying to collect from the internee and his family (see LDICEA2012.0027.0009.b). A handwritten note directs: Let stand as closed now. If you write another letter they will likely charge for the answer.

In the attached copy of the letter by Bertoni’s wife, originally dated March 27, 1944, she notes she finds the fee excessive given the family had very little assets to begin with. She also notes they are not in a position to pay the charge all at once, and are instead trying to do so in installments.

MAKER
G.G. Beckett

DATE
December 14, 1943

CREDIT LINE
Library and Archives Canada, Custodian of Enemy Property, RG117, Vol. 670, File 5033

This memorandum was written for G.W. McPherson, Counsel for the Custodian of Enemy Property, regarding Giuseppe Denise. The memo is signed by G.G. Beckett, assistant to the Custodian.

The Custodian of Enemy Property (CEP), a branch of the Canadian government, oversaw the administration of assets belonging to internees and other enemy aliens. This government office served a dual function. Acting as a trustee for the internee/enemy alien, the office and its agents also protected the interests of the creditors. The CEP would pay off an internee’s debts by selling his or her property or businesses. It also collected money owed to internees by others. Families of internees often did not have access to the husband’s assets and bank accounts. As a result, families often had to negotiate with the CEP for stipends for daily subsistence or use of assets like an automobile. In some cases, where assets were lacking, the CEP divested itself of any interest and left the families to fend for themselves.

This document reviews the situation pertaining to the management of Denise’s affairs by the CEP, while he was interned. In this case, three years after his release, CEP is still trying to recover their expenses, by charging him a fee of $21.28. However, it appears the Custodian was not actively involved and did not occur these expenses in this case. It seems the expenses would total almost 4% of his assets. Regardless, a handwritten note directs: I don’t think you can back up now. You will have to justify the account and ask for payment.

MAKER
Government of Italy

DATE
December 27, 1916

CREDIT LINE
Private Collection of Peter Butti, Rosemarie McKernan, and Josephine Xavier

Twenty-page passport issued to Ida Butti, no. 394, reg. no. 16. The passport cover is brown. A family photo of Ida and her children, Rosina and Henry, is used for the picture identification section on page 7.

The first page states that the passport was issued to Ida Butti, born in Trieste (Italy) on November 22, 1878. Her parents name, and her city and province are also listed. Page two lists identifying details such as height, birthdate, eye colour, etc. Page three lists Ida and her family as heading to Canmore, Canada via ship. The passport is signed on December 26, 1916. Two stamps (one ink and one paper) are placed below the signature and date. Page four lists Rosina Butti, born 10-11-1900, and Cesare (Henry) Butti, born 8-11-1906 as “people accompanying the (passport) holder.” Page eight shows entry date into Canada as January 23, 1917.

Peter Butti came to Canada in 1912 to work as an electrical engineer. Once established, Peter was able to bring over Ida and the children. During WWII, Peter’s and Ida’s son, Henry, and daughter-in-law, Myra, were designated as enemy aliens. The couple’s son, Peter Henry Lawrence Butti, was six years old at the time but still remembers his parents reporting to the RCMP.

MAKER
G.W. McPherson (?)

DATE
September 26, 1940

CREDIT LINE
Library and Archives Canada, Custodian of Enemy Property, RG117, Vol. 669, File 5014

This typewritten copy of a memorandum regarding the Sacco family identifies the sender as Counsel, likley referring to G.W. McPherson, the counsel for the Custodian of Enemy Property. Dated to September 26, 1940, the memo addresses the report on the Sacco family received from the CEP agents in this case — Price, Waterhouse & Co.

The Custodian of Enemy Property (CEP), a branch of the Canadian government, oversaw the administration of assets belonging to internees and other enemy aliens. This government office served a dual function. Acting as a trustee for the internee/enemy alien, the office and its agents also protected the interests of the creditors. The CEP would pay off an internee’s debts by selling his or her property or businesses. It also collected money owed to internees by others.

The CEP agents reported that the Sacco family, from the Niagara area, was involved in criminal activities. One of the boys (unidentified) had been recently released from an American prison after a murder conviction. Some of the Italian-Canadian internees seem to have been interned for their criminal activities rather than any political or subversive activities.

MAKER
Marcelle Dieni

DATE
November 12, 1945

CREDIT LINE
Library and Archives Canada, Custodian of Enemy Property, RG117, Vol. 1976, File 3886

This two-page typewritten declaration by Marcelle Dieni, is identified as a translation and was submitted to Ernest Lapointe, Minister of Justice, on November 12, 1945. The declaration itself is dated five years earlier to June 19, 1940.

Marcelle was the daughter of Italian-Canadian internee Antonio Dieni. At the time of the translation, Dieni would have been free for about 3 years. The reason for the translation is not known. However, at about this time, his attorney was advocating for restitution and compensation for the financial losses suffered as a result of Dieni’s internment (see LDICEA2012.0017.0024).

In the declaration, Marcelle identifies her father as the operator of three restaurants, one of which was located in the Casa d’Italia. She claims her father is a loyal citizen (a naturalized British subject). She denies he had any involvement with fascism — the Casa was the location of the consulate for the Italian fascist government and the location of many related political and social activities. Furthermore, Antonio’s brother, Gentile Dieni, who was also interned, was a loyal and unapologetic fascist supporter.

Although Marcelle was attempting to carry on her father’s business, she was unable to access the restaurants or assets, and “that all his commerical enterprises are doomed to bankruptcy”. She asks for access to his assets and that his case be heard quickly, so if proved innocent, he may return to his business interests and save himself and his family from financial ruin.

MAKER
Ferdinando Mancuso

DATE
June 03, 1940

CREDIT LINE
Library and Archives Canada, Custodian of Enemy Property, RG117, Vol. 653, File 3620

Translated telegram to Benito Mussolini from Dr. Ferdinando Mancuso, the Grande Venerabile, Order Sons of Italy. The telegram appears to have been sent on June 3, seven days before the declaration of war.

At this moment in which our country of origin is preparing to pronounce its attitude in the European War Italians resident in Canada, strongly supported by numerous and authoritative AngloCanadian sympathisers maintain that all aspirations including participation of control of the Suez Canal can be satisfied without recourse to arms and are ready to exercise every influence moral and material so that the legitimate aspirations of the Italian people under the direction of Your Excellency will be granted without shedding of blood

A handwritten note in pencil at the lower left corner reads: Defayette advised: Contents(?) known by him [Initials].

Ferdinando and his brother Salvatore Mancuso were interned as threats to the Canadian state.

MAKER
Canadian Postal Censorship

DATE
June 28, 1940

CREDIT LINE
Library and Archives Canada, Custodian of Enemy Property, RG117, Vol. 1928, File 2860

Intercepted letter notice, Canadian Postal Censorship, June 28, 1940, re. letter from “il Truciolo” to A.S. Biffi & Co.

Internees were allowed to write and receive letters. However, all camp letters were read by a censor. Contents deemed inappropriate were blacked out with ink. The same applied to incoming mail. Camp letters that were written in Italian were first translated into English before being read by a censor.

MAKER
G.W. McPherson

DATE
September 15, 1940

CREDIT LINE
Library and Archives Canada, Custodian of Enemy Property, RG117, Vol. 1928, File 2860

This memorandum was written for Dr. E.H. Coleman, Under Secretary of State and Custodian of Enemy Property, regarding A.S. Biffi & Co. During the war, Coleman’s responsibilities included the internment of enemy aliens, custody of enemy property and press censorship. The memo is signed by G.W. McPherson, counsel for the Custodian. The Custodian of Enemy Property (CEP), a branch of the Canadian government, oversaw the administration of assets belonging to internees and other enemy aliens. This government office served a dual function. Acting as a trustee for the internee/enemy alien, the office and its agents also protected the interests of the creditors. The CEP would pay off an internee’s debts by selling his or her property or businesses. It also collected money owed to internees by others. Families of internees often did not have access to the husband’s assets and bank accounts. As a result, families often had to negotiate with the CEP for stipends for daily subsistence or use of assets like an automobile. In some cases, where assets were lacking, the CEP divested itself of any interest and left the families to fend for themselves. This document reviews the situation pertaining to the assets of A.S. Biffi, and also notes the interest of Thomas Vien, MP, in this case (see LDICEA2012.0017.12.a-b).

MAKER
Government of Canada

DATE
N/A

CREDIT LINE
Library and Archives Canada, Correctional Service of Canada, RG73, Accession 80-81/253, Box 73, 23-1, Part 2

These typewritten regulations pertain to visits to internees. Although undated, they were probably written and distributed in late 1940 or later. It appears male internees were still forbidden visitors in fall of 1940 (see LDICEA2012.0017.0004). Although, these regulations do specifically relate to only internees that are citizens (British subjects), whether by birth or naturalization.

The document notes the following restrictions:

  • Visitors had to be relatives, defined as: wife or husband, son or step-son, daughter, father, mother, brother or half-brother, sister, grandfather, grandmother, son-in-law, daughter-in-law, father-in-law, mother-in-law. In the case where internees did not have such relatives, others could visit provided they were vouched for by a member of the clergy or police.
  • Three visitors were permitted at any given time.
  • Applications for permission to visit had to be made in writing at least 10 days pior to the date of the intended visit.
  • All parcels and materials brought by visitors had to be surrendered to camp staff first for inspection.
  • Visits were limited to 30 minutes in duration, took place in the presence of a guard/camp staff, and had to be conducted in English or French.

In the situation where an internee was seriously ill and in hospital, these restrictions could be waived.

MAKER
Staff Officer, Internment Operations

DATE
February 25, 1941

CREDIT LINE
Library and Archives Canada, Correctional Service of Canada, RG73, Accession 80-81/253, Box 73, 23-1, Part 1

This typewritten memo was sent to the Warden of Kingston Penitentiary, by a staff officer (illegible signature) of Internment Operations, based in Ottawa, ON. The contents pertain to a parcel received from the International Red Cross containing chocolate bars (a handwritten note in pencil identifies them as 10 double Nestles). These bars are offered to the female internees housed in the prison.

Four Italian Canadian women were interned during World War II. They, along with 17 German Canadian women, were held at the Prison for Women in Kingston, Ontario. The prison was located on the north side of King St. West, across from the Kingston Penitentiary. The women were held in a separate wing known as the Internment Quarters. Women internees could receive letters and care packages.

At the date of the memo, February 25, 1941, only two of the Italian Canadian internees remained: Verna Lo Bosco and Maria Pressello. Their signatures appear on the memo of 12 names giving thanks for the donation (see LDICEA2012.0017.0006).

MAKER
Government of Canada

DATE
August 13, 1940

CREDIT LINE
Library and Archives Canada, Correctional Service of Canada, RG73, Accession 80-81/253, Box 73, 23-1, Part 1.

These typewritten guidelines pertain to Internees’ Correspondence. The two-page document is stamped in the upper right corner with the date August 13, 1940 and “Kingston Penitentiary Wardens Secretary”. This document was a copy for the “Female Internment Quarters”.

Four Italian Canadian women were interned during World War II. They, along with 17 German Canadian women, were held at the Prison for Women in Kingston, Ontario. The prison was located on the north side of King St. West, across from the Kingston Penitentiary.

Letters could be written in English, French, Italian or German. No other languages were permitted.

The document notes the following restrictions:

  • Internees may not correspond with eachother, unless related.
  • Internees had to use official correspondance forms and limit their letters to 24 lines.
  • Drawings, poetry, music were forbidden.
  • Criticisms of the Canadian government, Canadian authorities, and internment operations were forbidden.

MAKER
Unknown

DATE
June 15, 1940

CREDIT LINE
Library and Archives Canada, MG30 E182, Vol. 14

This typewritten declaration was made by unidentified members of the Italian Church of the Redeemer on June 15, 1940. The declaration is not signed but a handwritten note in pencil identifies the name of [Domenico] Scalera, who was the minister of the church located in Montreal, Quebec. The rest of the handwritting is difficult to decipher.

The declaration states the loyalty of the parishioners to the monarchy and Canada, and denies any involvement with fascism.

Scalera had replaced the disgraced minister Augusto Bersani, who research shows acted as a RCMP informant. At the time of writing, it appears Scalera was still free — he was interned on July 12, 1940. However, the timeframe would place the document after the mass arrests that occurred on June 10th, which would have created fear and unease in the Italian community of Montreal.

Other members of the church were also interned, including the Monaco brothers.

MAKER
Government of the Province of Alberta

DATE
May 30, 1929

CREDIT LINE
Private Collection of Peter Butti, Rosemarie McKernan, and Josephine Xavier

Certificate of Henry Caesar Butti and Myra Cantera, no. 18739, dated 1929. The marriage certificate was issued by the provincial government of Alberta. It was registered on May 29, 1929 and signed by a Deputy Registrar General.

Henry and Myra were both Italian-born immigrants. They met in Edmonton, AB and was married at St. Josephs Cathedral on April 23, 1929. Henry was 24 years old and Myra was 23.

When World War II broke out the couple was designated as enemy aliens and they were required to report monthly to the RCMP (Royal Canadian Mounted Police).

MAKER
Government of Canada

DATE
May 06, 1955

INSCRIPTIONS
Verso: (Printed, typed, and handwritten, blue and green inks, throughout) DESCRIPTION – SIGNALEMENT / NAME (Nom) HENRY BUTTI / ADDRESS (Adresse) EDMONTON, ALBERTA, CANADA / TRADE OR OCCUPATION (Profession) ELECTRICAL CONTRACTOR / PLACE OF BIRTH (Lieu de naissance) ITALY / DATE (Date de naissance) 8TH NOVEMBER, 1904 / MARITAL STATUS (Etat matrimonial) MARRIED / SEX (Sexe) M / HEIGHT (Taille) 5’5″ / COMPLEXION (Teint) FAIR / EYES (Yeux) BLUE / HAIR (Cheveux) FAIR / DISTINGUISHING MARKS (Marques particulières) NONE / This certificate granted pursuant to section (Le présent certificat accordé en veriu de l’article) 10(1) shall be (entrera) / effective on and from the (en vigueur à compter du 6TH day of (jour de) May 1955 / (Signature in green pen) / REGISTRAR OF CANADIAN CITIZENSHIP (Registraire de la Citoyennete canadienne)

CREDIT LINE
Private Collection of Peter Butti, Rosemarie McKernan, and Josephine Xavier

Certificate of Canadian Citizenship for Henry Butti, No. 19131, dated May 6, 1965 and signed by the Deputy Minister and Minister of Canada.

The back of the certificate states the issue date, but also identifiable details such as Henry’s date and place of birth, occupation, current address, marital status, gender, height, complexion, and eye and hair colour. It is also signed by the Registrar of Canadian Citizenship.

Henry Butti was born in Italy on November 8, 1904; he immigrated to Canada in 1917. In 1929, he married Mira (Myra) Cantera (also Italian born) in Edmonton, AB. When World War II broke out the couple was designated as enemy aliens and they were required to report monthly to the RCMP (Royal Canadian Mounted Police).

MAKER
Government of Canada

DATE
April 25, 1962

INSCRIPTIONS
Verso: (Printed and typed, black ink, throughout) DESCRIPTION – SIGNALEMENT / NAME (Nom) MIRA (MYRA) BUTTI / ADDRESS (Adresse) EDMONTON, ALBERTA, CANADA / PLACE OF BIRTH (Lieu de naissance) OFENA, ITALY / DATE (Date de naissance) 1ST JULY, 1908 / MARITAL STATUS (Etat matrimonial) MARRIED / SEX (Sexe) F / HEIGHT (Taille) 5’1″ / COMPLEXION (Teint) MEDIUM / EYES (Yeux) BROWN / HAIR (Cheveux) BLACK, GREYING / DISTINGUISHING MARKS (Marques particulières) NONE / THIS CERTIFICATE HAS BEEN GRANTED UNDER THE PROVISIONS (Le présent certificat fut aux termes de) / OF SECTION (l’article) 10(3) / DATED (Daté) 25TH APRIL, 1962

CREDIT LINE
Private Collection of Peter Butti, Rosemarie McKernan, and Josephine Xavier

Certificate of Canadian Citizenship for Mira (Myra) Butti, No. 564996, dated April 25, 1962 and signed by the Deputy Minister and Minister of Canada.

The back of the certificate states the issue date, but also identifiable details such as Myra’s date and place of birth, current address, marital status, gender, height, complexion, and eye and hair colour.

Myra Butti (née Cantera) was born in Ofena, Italy on July 1, 1908; she immigrated to Canada in 1911. In 1929, she married Henry Butti (also Italian born) in Edmonton, AB. When World War II broke out the couple was designated as enemy aliens and they were required to report monthly to the RCMP (Royal Canadian Mounted Police).

MAKER
R.P. Kinkel

DATE
July 15, 1940

CREDIT LINE
Courtesy of Martin Carbone, son

Oath and/or declaration of R.P. Kinkel, in support of Thomas (Tom) Joseph Carbone, July 15, 1940. Tom and his family lived in Timmins when World War II broke out. He was one of many arrested on June 10, 1940. Under the DOCR (Defence of Canada Regulations), after 30 days, internees could formally object to their detention to an advisory committee appointed by the Minister of Justice. The Minister of Justice then appointed a judge to review the internee’s case. This meant an examination of the RCMP’s evidence against the internee, meetings with the internee, and interviews with witnesses who could attest to the internee’s character. After this, the judge either recommended an internee’s release or continued internment to the Minister of Justice. Tom worked at the Buffalo Ankerite Gold Mines Ltd. in Timmins (then known as South Porcupine). Mine manager Kinkel wrote this letter in support for Tom’s release. He writes that Tom was hardly considered an Italian by his English speaking peers, as he was not known to speak Italian and he associated himself with English speaking persons. Further, Kinkel states that when Tom was detained, his colleagues wanted to start a petition in Tom’s defence. He concludes: “All of this contact with the man, perhaps somewhat more than the usual, enables me to sincerely approve his character in so far as I have thus known him.”

MAKER
Unknown

DATE
April 27, 1927

CREDIT LINE
Private Collection of Peter Butti, Rosemarie McKernan, and Josephine Xavier

Certificate of Naturalization for Peter Butti, No. 49631, dated April 26, 1927 and signed by the Under Secretary of State and the Secretary of State of Canada.

The front of the certificate reads:

The Naturalization Acts, 1914 and 1920
Certificate of Naturalization

I the undersigned Secretary of State of Canada do hereby certify and declare that PETER BUTTI whose particulars are enclosed hereon, is hereby naturalized as a British subject that he is entitled to all political and other rights, powers and privileges, and subject to all obligations, duties and liabilities to which a natural born British subject is entitled or subject and that he has to all intents and purposes the status of a natural born British subject.

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto subscribed my name and affixed the Seal of the Department of the Secretary of State of Canada this Twenty-Sixth day of April, 1927.

After the Italian declaration of war, all Italian Canadians naturalized after September 1, 1922 were declared enemy aliens.

Peter Butti was born in Montova, Italy on August 23, 1873. He immigrated to Canada in 1912 to work as an electrical engineer. He later brought over his wife (Ida) and his children (Henry and Rosina). During WWII, Henry was designated as an enemy alien.

MAKER
Allan Lewis

DATE
February 14, 1941

CREDIT LINE
With the permission of the Mascioli Family

This is a telegram sent to Daniel Mascioli informing him of Leopoldo (Leo) Mascioli’s and Antonio (Tony) Mascioli’s releases from internment camp. Typewritten, one page. Daniel was Leo’s and Tony’s nephew. The telegraph company is listed as Temiskaming and northern Ontario Railway’s telegraph – operated by the Ontario Government Commission. The date on it is February 14th, 1941 at 9:51 a.m. The message reads: “Order signed today by Minister of Justice for Release of both Leo and Antonio Mascioli. Writing. Allan Lewis.” The Mascioli brothers were both interned during World War II at Camp Petawawa.

MAKER
Roy Thomson

DATE
July 08, 1940

CREDIT LINE
With the permission of the Mascioli Family

Oath and/or declaration of Roy Thomson, in support of Antonio (Tony) Mascioli and Leopoldo (Leo) Mascioli, July 1940. Typewritten, three pages.

The Mascioli brothers were both interned at Petawawa Internment Camp during World War II. According to Leo’s granddaughter and Tony’s grandniece, Joan McKinnon, Roy Thomson was one of the few friends who stood by when many others turned their back on the Mascioli family.

Here, Thomson writes:

I have been in the North Country since 1928, and actively established in Timmins and vicinity since 1933, and I have known Mr. Leo Mascioli personally during this whole period…From my business and other contacts with both Leo and Antonio Mascioli, I can vouch for their integrity, honesty, and community spirit…I also discussed conditions in Europe with Mr. Leo Mascioli and both of us were emphatically of the opinion that the actions of Hitler and Mussolini were detrimental to the world at large.

Under the DOCR (Defence of Canada Regulations), after 30 days, internees could formally object to their detention to an advisory committee appointed by the Minister of Justice. The Minister of Justice then appointed a judge to review the internee’s case. This meant an examination of the RCMP’s evidence against the internee, meetings with the internee, and interviews with witnesses who could attest to the internee’s character. After this, the judge either recommended an internee’s release or continued internment to the Minister of Justice.

MAKER
Order Sons of Italy

DATE
February 15, 1937

CREDIT LINE
Courtesy of the Sanguiro and Romanelli families

Funeral benefit certificate in the amount $200.00 of Ettore Sanguiro of Hamilton, ON, for the Order Sons of Italy, February 15, 1937. The certificate was issued from the head office in Toronto. The Order Sons of Italy (OSI), founded in 1905 by Dr. Vincent Sellaro in New York City, operated as a mutual aid society for those of Italian origin. The first Canadian lodge of this fraternal organization was founded in Sault Ste. Marie in 1915. The Hamilton chapter was founded in 1925/1926. It was divided into three main lodges – the Trieste Lodge, the Imperial Lodge, and the Roma Lodge (the women’s branch). Fascists attempted to take control of this organization in the 1930s. The organization itself was never declared illegal (unlike the fascio and other groups) and continued to operate throughout the war years, although in a much-reduced capacity. Given its association with those interned, it took several years for the OSI to return to its prominence and activities. The certificate reads: Order of the Sons of Italy Mutual Benefit Society of Ontario Incorporated in the year 1926 This is to certify that Ettore Sanguiro member of the Order Sons of Italy Mutual Benefit Society of Ontario is insured for Funeral Benefit for the Sum of Two Hundred Dollars, ($200.00) payable upon receipt of due proof of death of the insured during the continuance in the membership, as specified in the Rules of the said Society. Payable to Luisa Sanguiro Beneficiary wife (relation) Given at Toronto this 15th day of February 1937 The Mutual Benefit Society Commission The document is signed by the President Teodoro Zambri and Secretary Libero Sauro. All three men were arrested and interned as threats to the safety of the Canadian state.

MAKER
Repubblica Italiana, Ministero del Tesoro

DATE
February 10, 1973

CREDIT LINE
Courtesy of the Sanguiro and Romanelli families

Pension document for Ettore Sanguiro dated February 10, 1973, issued by the Italian government. It is unclear whether this is an old age pension or a war pension. It appears that the pension was issued twice a year, in June and December, from the Bank of Naples in New York.

Ettore Sanguiro was born on March 25, 1891 in Rome, Italy. He served with the Italian army during World War I and was wounded. In 1923, Sanguiro came to Canada and seven years later, his wife, Luisa, followed with their eight-year-old daughter, Cesarina. Their second child, Rosemarie, was born in 1933. The family residence lived at 557 Cannon Street East in Hamilton. Sanguiro began working for the Firth Brothers tailoring firm in 1923. Luisa was also a tailor.

Sanguiro was arrested on June 10, 1940. It was horrifying for the family, but especially for Rosemarie who was only seven at the time. She remembers how three Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) officers disrupted the family dinner by kicking in the front, side, and back doors to their humble home. After his brief detention in Toronto, Sanguiro was sent to Petawawa Internment Camp; his family did not see him again until his release in 1942.

MAKER
Comune di Roma

DATE
November 1960

CREDIT LINE
Courtesy of the Sanguiro and Romanelli families

Birth Certificate for Ettore Sanguiro. The certificate was reissued in November 1960, in the City of Rome where Sanguiro was born on March 25, 1891.

In 1923, Sanguiro came to Canada and seven years later, his wife, Luisa, followed with their eight-year-old daughter, Cesarina. Their second child, Rosemarie, was born in 1933. The family residence lived at 557 Cannon Street East in Hamilton.

Sanguiro was arrested on June 10, 1940. It was horrifying for the family, but especially for Rosemarie who was only seven at the time. She remembers how three Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) officers disrupted the family dinner by kicking in the front, side, and back doors to their humble home. After his brief detention in Toronto, Sanguiro was sent to Petawawa Internment Camp; his family did not see him again until his release in 1942.

MAKER
Government of Canada

DATE
November 02, 1929

CREDIT LINE
Courtesy of the Sanguiro and Romanelli families

Certificate of Naturalization for Ettore Sanguiro, No. 65315, dated November 2, 1929 and signed by the Secretary of State and the Acting Undersecretary of State of Canada. Ettore Sanguiro has signed the bottom on the document.

The certificate reads:

The Naturalization Acts, 1914 and 1920
Certificate of Naturalization

I the undersigned Secretary of State of Canada do hereby certify and declare that ETTORE SANGUIRO whose particulars are enclosed hereon, is hereby naturalized as a British subject that he is entitled to all political and other rights, powers and privileges, and subject to all obligations, duties and liabilities to which a natural born British subject is entitled or subject and that he has to all intents and purposes the status of a natural born British subject.

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto subscribed my name and affixed the Seal of the Department of the Secretary of State of Canada this Second day of November 1929.

After the Italian declaration of war, all Italian Canadians naturalized after September 1, 1922 were declared enemy aliens.

Ettore Sanguiro was born on March 25, 1891. In 1923, Sanguiro came to Canada and seven years later, his wife, Luisa, followed with their eight-year-old daughter, Cesarina. Their second child, Rosemarie, was born in 1933. The family residence lived at 557 Cannon Street East in Hamilton.

Sanguiro was arrested on June 10, 1940. It was horrifying for the family, but especially for Rosemarie who was only seven at the time. She remembers how three Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) officers disrupted the family dinner by kicking in the front, side, and back doors to their humble home. After his brief detention in Toronto, Sanguiro was sent to Petawawa Internment Camp; his family did not see him again until his release in 1942.

MAKER
Unknown

CREDIT LINE
Private collection of Attilio L. Girardi

List, occupants of Hut 32, Camp Kananaskis, AB, 1940-1941. The list indicates that of the twelve occupants, two were Italian Canadians — the Girardi brothers. The list is ordered by PW#. 11 names appear in elaborate calligraphy. Attilio Girardi’s name appears out of order and at the end in different script, suggesting he was not among the original occupants.

The Kananaskis barracks were constructed from thin wood boards and the roof was covered with tar paper. Gaps between the boards meant that sand would enter the barracks in the summer and snow in the winter. There was no plumbing in the buildings. Each barrack contained 12 beds, a long table with benches and a wood stove for heating. The Kananaskis Camp did not initially have electricity, and the barracks were lit with oil lamps. The camp was electrified either in the fall of 1940 or the following year. Every barrack was assigned a number and was represented by an appointed barrack leader who acted as a liaison to the camp spokesperson. Internees had to keep their barracks clean. Barracks were inspected daily by the camp commandant accompanied by military police and the camp spokesperson.

MAKER
Unknown

DATE
December 29, 1941

CREDIT LINE
Private collection of Attilio L. Girardi

List, occupants of Hut 32, Camp Kananaskis, AB, 1940-1941. The list indicates that of the twelve occupants, two were Italian Canadians — the Girardi brothers. The list is ordered by PW#. 11 names appear in elaborate calligraphy. Attilio Girardi’s name appears out of order and at the end in different script, suggesting he was not among the original occupants.

The Kananaskis barracks were constructed from thin wood boards and the roof was covered with tar paper. Gaps between the boards meant that sand would enter the barracks in the summer and snow in the winter. There was no plumbing in the buildings. Each barrack contained 12 beds, a long table with benches and a wood stove for heating. The Kananaskis Camp did not initially have electricity, and the barracks were lit with oil lamps. The camp was electrified either in the fall of 1940 or the following year. Every barrack was assigned a number and was represented by an appointed barrack leader who acted as a liaison to the camp spokesperson. Internees had to keep their barracks clean. Barracks were inspected daily by the camp commandant accompanied by military police and the camp spokesperson.

MAKER
Societa Avviamento Emigranti Porti Esteri

DATE
January 01, 1927

CREDIT LINE
Courtesy of the daughters of Yolanda and Domenico Gaggi

Permission to travel/emigrate for Domenico Gaggi, for passage leaving Genoa on January 1, 1927 to Canada.

Born in Italy, Gaggi immigrated to Canada in 1927 at 23 years of age. He lived in Toronto for about 10 years, working infrequently, and was supported by his family. He was married in Toronto, and the couple moved to Sudbury, where work was available in the mines. He was working in the smelters in Sudbury, when both he and his wife were designated as enemy aliens.

MAKER
Government of Italy

DATE
December 27, 1926

CREDIT LINE
Courtesy of the daughters of Yolanda and Domenico Gaggi

Passport, issued by the Kingdom of Italy, for Domenico Gaggi, December 27, 1926. The document has numerous stamps from Italian, French and Canadian officials. Gaggi seems to have departed from Genoa with a stop in France before his entry into Canada.

Born in Italy, Gaggi immigrated to Canada in 1927 at 23 years of age. He lived in Toronto for about 10 years, working infrequently, and was supported by his family. He was married in Toronto, and the couple moved to Sudbury, where work was available in the mines. He was working in the smelters in Sudbury, when both he and his wife were designated as enemy aliens.

MAKER
S.T. Wood, RCMP Commissioner

DATE
September 25, 1944

CREDIT LINE
Courtesy of the daughters of Yolanda and Domenico Gaggi

Resident permit for rifle, shotgun, and ammunition or other explosive, issued to Domenic Gaggi, by RCMP, September 25,1944. The permit specifies a shotgun that is to be issued for hunting purposes, and is signed by S.T. Wood, the RCMP Commissioner.

During the war, Domenico (naturalized British subject since 1937) and his Canadian-born wife Yolanda were designated as Enemy Aliens. Under the Defence of Canada Regulations (DOCR), enemy aliens were not allowed to keep guns, only under certain conditions and with special permission.

MAKER
Director of Internment Operations

DATE
March 11, 1940

CREDIT LINE
Library and Archives Canada, RG6 A, Vol. 207, File 2902, pt.6-5

Notice warning against the transmission of messages, parcels, newspapers and other articles to internees in any of the Canadian internment camps. The warming, which features the Royal Coat of Arms of Canada at the top, was issued by the Director of Internment Operations in Ottawa on March 11, 1940. The notice states that anyone found guilty of transmitting such materials without prior consent of the Director of Internment Operations will be found guilty under the Defence of Canada Regulations and “shall be liable on Summary Conviction to a penalty not exceeding Twelve Months Imprisonment and a fine of $500.00 or on Indictment to a penalty not exceeding Five Years Imprisonment and a fine of $5,000.00.”

It is unclear whether this notice was posted at internment camps for visitors to see prior to being admitted into the camps or whether they were sent to family members or friends prior to being allowed to visit internees at the internment camps.

During World War II, Germans Canadians were the first ethnic group to be interned in Canada. After Mussolini’s war declaration on June 10, 1940 the Canadian government gave the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) orders to arrest Italian Canadians considered at threat to the nation’s security. Although there were 26 internment camps in Canada during WWII, Italian Canadians males were interned at three camps: Petawawa, Kananaskis and Fredericton/Ripples.

MAKER
Unknown

DATE
December 29, 1941

CREDIT LINE
Private collection of Joyce Pillarella

Certificate, Petawawa Internment Camp Sports League, given to internee Nicola Germano for good sportsmanship, December 29, 1941. The certificate is signed by other internees.

Beginning in late 1941, to alleviate the internees’ homesickness at Christmastime, an annual Field Day was held at Petawawa. During this Olympic-styled event, internees competed in a variety of sports.

MAKER
Unknown

DATE
February 09, 1943

CREDIT LINE
Private collection of Joyce Pillarella

Route letter for Nicola Germano, issued by the Commandant, Fredericton Internment Camp, February 9, 1943.

The document was issued to Germano upon his release and is also signed by him. A standard form, it notes the second-class train ticket provided, along with a food ration for the return home. The internee also acknowledges receipt of his personal effects and the balance of his camp account.

MAKER
Canadian National Railways

DATE
March 25, 1941

CREDIT LINE
With the permission of Rosemary Poggione

Statement of Giuseppe Costantini, to Canadian National Railways, March 25, 1941. The document records questions posed to Costantini and his reponses. It seems to have been part of an investigation by which on his release from internment Costantini sought to regain his former position with the Canadian National Railways. The statement is signed by Costantini and a witness (signature unclear).

Costantini succeeded in returning to his old job as parcel room attendant at Union Station in Ottawa. He was eventually promoted to Assistant Station Master.

MAKER
Italian Canadian Recreation Club

DATE
March 10, 1949

CREDIT LINE
Columbus Centre Collection

Loan certificate for the Italian Canadian Recreation Club, issued to Alessandro Tambosso, March 10, 1949, valued at $100. The certificate is signed by the executive officers of the club, E. Marrasutti and D. Bratty. The third signature is unclear. These certificates were paid out and cancelled after a certain period of time (January 15, 1957 – January 15, 1962). Their cancellation is often indicated by a red X across the face, and notes with signatures on the back. This certificate seems to have been paid out to Tambosso on November 30, 1966. It appears Tambosso contributed $200 in total, and was issued two certificates.

After the war, some communities began to rebuild their organizations. In Toronto, the Italian Canadian community fought for the return of the Casa d’Italia building. At the same time, in 1947, with several hundred members, the Italo Canadian Recreation Club (ICRC) was built on Brandon Ave. The ICRC became a focal point for the post-war community — the location for dances, social events, meetings and weddings. Among the early supporters was former internee Alessandro Tambosso. ICRC supporters would also include many who later became involved with Villa Charities Inc.

MAKER
Italian Canadian Recreation Club

DATE
January 11, 1947

CREDIT LINE
Columbus Centre Collection

Loan certificate for the Italian Canadian Recreation Club, issued to Alessandro Tambosso, January 11, 1947, valued at $100. The certificate is signed by the executive officers of the club, P. Malisani, D. Bratty, and E. Marrasutti. These certificates were paid out and cancelled after a certain period of time (January 15, 1957 – January 15, 1962). Their cancellation is often indicated by a red X across the face, and notes with signatures on the back. This certificate seems to have been paid out to Tambosso on November 30, 1961. It appears Tambosso contributed $200 in total, and was issued two certificates.

After the war, some communities began to rebuild their organizations. In Toronto, the Italian Canadian community fought for the return of the Casa d’Italia building. At the same time, in 1947, with several hundred members, the Italo Canadian Recreation Club (ICRC) was built on Brandon Ave. The ICRC became a focal point for the post-war community — the location for dances, social events, meetings and weddings. Among the early supporters was former internee Alessandro Tambosso. ICRC supporters would also include many who later became involved with Villa Charities Inc.

MAKER
L.M. Edwards

DATE
September 19, 1940

CREDIT LINE
With the permission of Rosemary Poggione

Report of Capital Trust Corporation Ltd to Custodian of Enemy Property, September 19, 1940, regarding the property and assets of internee Giuseppe Costantini, two pages.

Capital Trust Corporation Ltd was an agent employed by the Custodian of Enemy Property (CEP), a branch of the Canadian government that oversaw the administration of assets belonging to internees and other enemy aliens. The government office served a dual function. Acting as a trustee for the internee/enemy alien, the office and its agents also protected the interests of the creditors. The CEP would pay off an internee’s debts by selling his or her property or businesses. It also collected money owed to internees by others. Each accounting firm hired by the CEP would bill an internee for administrative costs even though internees did not ask for the CEP to be involved.

In this case, it seems the CEP agent acted to divest Costantini of his interests in the Preston Hotel. Although the agent reports that Costantini did not own the property, they do acknowledge he had a partnership in the hotel business based on the property. However, they only seem to value that partnership in terms of cash assets held in the bank account and the hotel “chattels” (the tangible property). The intangible interest in the business is not acknowledged.

MAKER
Italian Canadian Recreation Club

DATE
1951

DIMENSIONS
5 x 3 inches

CREDIT LINE
Columbus Centre Collection

Member’s handbook, pocket-size, Italian Canadian Recreation Club, Toronto, ON, 1951. The handbook includes the by-laws, a list of members with addresses, and advertisements. This is the first edition of what was intended to be an annual issue. Made of paper, mutliple sheets, folded and stapled together, with cover of cardstock, dyed burgundy. A few pages seem to be missing for the address list from M-R.

After the war, some communities began to rebuild their organizations. In Toronto, the Italian Canadian community fought for the return of the Casa d’Italia building. At the same time, in 1947, with several hundred members, the Italo Canadian Recreation Club (ICRC) was built on Brandon Ave. The ICRC became a focal point for the post-war community — the location for dances, social events, meetings and weddings.

MAKER
Unknown

DATE
September 09, 1940

CREDIT LINE
Courtesy of the Visocchi family

Resident identification card for Antoinietta Visocchi, Montreal, QC, September 9, 1940. The purpose of this card is not known. It may be related to the enemy alien cards some individuals were required to carry and produce when requested by authorities. The card indicates that she had been a naturalized British subject since 1931. The card was issued by the City of Montreal.

Antoinietta’s husband, Giuseppe Visocchi, was one of the Italian Canadian men interned in June 1940. He was an Italian veteran from World War I, and the president of the Caserta Club. As the only breadwinner for his large family, Giuseppe Visocchi’s internment of about two years was devastating to his wife and seven children.

MAKER
Unknown

DATE
ca. 1939

CREDIT LINE
Library and Archives Canada, RG24, Vol. 6586, File 5-1-1, Folder 134

Blueprint of Camp Petawawa, or Camp #33 as it was also know. The document shows the layout of the camp, complete with barracks, dining rooms, recreation building, detention room, hospital and workshops. The camp in the blueprint is for 200 men.

Petawawa Internment Camp #33 was located at Centre Lake on Canadian Forces Base Petawawa and surrounded by dense forest. The land on which the base and camp were constructed was originally Algonquin territory. The Petawawa Internment Camp was first used to intern enemy aliens from Germany and the Austro-Hungarian Empire during World War I. At the start of World War II, Petawawa was once again used to intern enemy aliens. German Canadians were the first to be sent to the camp in 1939, followed by Italian Canadians in June 1940.

MAKER
Unknown

DATE
ca. 1940

CREDIT LINE
Library and Archives Canada, RG73, Acc. No. 80-81/253, Box 73, File 23-1 pt. 1

Average weekly menu at the Prison for Women at Kingston Penitentiary during World War II.

During World War II, 21 women were interned: 17 German Canadians and 4 Italian Canadians. The women were held at the Prison for Women in Kingston, Ontario, and kept in a separate wing known as the Internment Quarters. It was thought that the prison would be more comfortable than a camp. Due to the small number of women internees, the prison was also less costly than constructing a women-only camp. Internees were held in cells in a separate wing of the Kingston Prison for Women known as the Internment Quarters. This was done to prevent them from intermingling with the general prison population. Internees were served three meals a day. Breakfast included prunes, cereal, toast and jam, coffee, tea and milk. Lunch and dinner consisted of soup or stew, meat or fish, vegetables and dessert. The women also received letters and care packages from family, as well from charitable organizations such as the International Red Cross, who sent the women Nestle chocolate bars.

MAKER
Unknown

DATE
February 28, 1941

CREDIT LINE
Library and Archives Canada, RG73, Acc. No. 80-81/253, Box 73, File 23-1 pt. 1

Memo issued from the Prison for Women in Kingston, ON, signed by female Italian and German internees giving thanks for gift of 10 Nestle chocolate bars. The memo contains the signatures of 12 internees. During World War II, 21 women were interned: 17 German Canadians and 4 Italian Canadians. Two of the four Italian Canadian women who were interned have signed the memo, they are Verna Lo Bosco and Maria Pressello. They were the last two Italian Canadian internees to be released from the camp in July 1941.

Verna Lo Bosco was born in Welland, ON; both of her parents had been born in Italy. At the time of her arrest, Lo Bosco was 29 years old and single. She had been working as a bookkeeper in the Brewers Warehouse in Welland since 1927 and also taught at the local Italian school. She was also active in her community. The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) kept a file on Lo Bosco pulled mostly from articles published in the fascist newspaper Il Bolletino. She was arrested on August 30, 1940 and was interned on September 14, 1940. She objected to her internment; and her case was heard by Justice JD Hyndman. In her testimony before him, she admitted her membership in the Order Sons of Italy but denied being a fascist.

Maria Pressello arrived in Canada in 1920. At the time of her internment in 1940, she was widowed with four adult children. During her internment, Pressello had all of her teeth removed and was given a set of dentures. She worked in the kitchen at the Kingston Prison for Women. She tried to stay away from other prisoners as much as possible. Her behaviour was exemplary. Pressello was accused of being a fascist, but no proof of this was uncovered. Although among the last of the Italian Canadian females interned, the case against Pressello was the weakest. Her signature is shaky and reinforces the claim of her being poorly educated and not involved in political or social circles — in particular, fascism or fascist clubs.

MAKER
Dominion of Canada

DATE
May 14, 1931

CREDIT LINE
Courtesy of G. Joseph Brescia

Copy of Certificate of Naturalization for Vincenzo Brescia, No. 25171, Series B, dated May 14, 1931 and signed by the Secretary of State and the Undersecretary of State of Canada. This copy was issued on November 17, 1945.

The certificate reads:

The Naturalization Acts, 1914 and 1920
Certificate of Naturalization
Where the Names of Children are Included

I the undersigned Secretary of State of Canada do hereby certify and declare that VINCENZO BRESCIA whose particulars are enclosed herein, is hereby naturalized as a British subject that he is entitled to all political and other rights, powers and privileges, and subject to all obligations, duties and liabilities to which a natural born British subject is entitled or subject and that he has to all intents and purposes the status of a natural born British subject. Application having been made therefor the minor children of the said VINCENZO BRESCIA born before the date of this Certificate whose names are endorsed hereon are included in this Certificate.

In testimony whereof, I have hereinso subscribed my name and affixed the Seal of the Department of the Secretary of State of Canada this fourteenth day of May 1931.

The names of Vincenzo’s children Helen and Generoso (Genero Joseph) are identified on the back of the document.

After the Italian declaration of war, all Italian Canadians naturalized after September 1, 1922 were declared enemy aliens. As such both Joseph Brescia and his sister Helen were declared enemy aliens after June 10, 1940. Both were required to be fingerprinted, carry a Certificate of Parole on their person at all times and report monthly to the local authorities. Despite his enemy alien status Joseph joined the Canadian military and was soon relieved from his reporting obligations.

MAKER
Unknown

DATE
September 12, 1943

INSCRIPTIONS
Verso:
(Printed, handwritten, black ink, bottom) The person named herein will be / readmitted to Canada within the validity / of this identification card. T655 / Place NIAGARA FALLS / Date JUNE 12 1943 Canadian Immigration Officer WCFinch

(Printed, black ink, bottom) REVALIDATED / FOR AN ADDITIONAL PERIOD OF ONE YEAR / CONSUL OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AT (Blank) Date (Blank) / REVALIDATED / FOR AN ADDITIONAL PERIOD OF ONE YEAR / CONSUL OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AT (Blank) Date (Blank)

(Printed, black ink, bottom left) 16-32398-1

Recto:
(Printed, black ink, top center) NONRESIDENT ALIEN’S BORDER CROSSING IDENTIFICATION CARD / UNITED STATES OF AMERICA / THIS IDENTIFICATION CARD IS VALID FOR ONE YEAR FROM DATE OF ISSUE BUT CAN BE CANCELED AT / ANY TIME. NO SINGLE VISIT TO THE UNITED STATES MAY EXCEED 29 DAYS.

(Printed, typewritten, handwritten, black ink, center) NAME Eugene Guagneli CITIZENSHIP Canadian / (BIRTHPLACE) Niagara Falls, Ont. (DATE) Feb. 13, 1927 / ACCOMPANIED BY —- / ViceCONSUL OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA (Signature illegible) / AT Niagara Falls, Ont., DATE June 12, 1943 / Joseph Keily U.S. IMMIGRATION OFFICER. / HEIGHT 5’8″ COLOR white EYES hazel HAIR brown

(Printed, typewritten, black ink, bottom) MARKS OF IDENTIFICATION

(Printed, red ink, bottom right) No. 64685

(Printed, handwritten, black ink, sideways, right) (SIGNATURE OF BEARER) Eugene Guagneli

CREDIT LINE
Courtesy of the family of Luisa Guagneli

This is an identication card for Eugene Guagneli, specifically a Nonresident Alien’s Border Crossing Identification Card, United States of America. The identification card number is 64685 and it was issued on June 12, 1943 in Niagara Falls. It states that it is valid for one year from the date of issue and that it can be canceled at any time. It also lists Eugene’s citizenship, place of birth, birthdate, height, colour of hair and eyes, and race. The watermark text reads: “Nonresident Aliens Border Crossing Identification Card United States of America.” Three signatures appear on the card: Eugene’s, a US Immigration officer’s, and that of the Vice Consul of the United States of America.

Eugene was born in Canada in 1927. During World War II, his mother, Luisa Guagneli, was one of four women interned; 13-year-old Eugene and his father, Arturo, were both designated as enemy aliens.

MAKER
Department of National Defence

DATE
February 07, 1946

CREDIT LINE
Courtesy of G. Joseph Brescia

Genero Joseph Brescia’s Discharge Certificate from the Canadian Army.

During World War II Brescia was declared an enemy alien. He had to carry a Certificate of Parole on his person at all times and report monthly to the local authorities. Despite his enemy alien status he joined the Canadian military and was soon relieved from his reporting obligations. Despite having his enemy alien status withdrawn and serving in the Royal Canadian Artillery, Brescia still faced discrimination due to his Italian heritage. In his video interview Brescia describes a particularly difficult experience he faced when he returned to the army headquarters in Winnipeg to receive his discharge papers.

This certificate contains information about Brescia’s physical description, rank and unit in the military, his enrollment date and the reason for his discharge. It is signed and dated by the commanding officer. The reason for Brescia’s discharge is given as, “To return to Civil Life – on demobilization.”

MAKER
Government of Canada

DATE
July 03, 1940

CREDIT LINE
Courtesy of G. Joseph Brescia

Genero Joseph Brescia’s Certificate of Parole.

During World War II Brescia was declared an enemy alien and had to carry this certificate on his person at all times and report monthly to the local authorities. Despite his enemy alien status he joined the Canadian military and was soon relieved from his reporting obligations.

The document contains information about Brescia’s address, age, physical description and citizenship status. It states that Brescia is not permitted to leave Fort Williams without having the document endorsed and that he is not permitted to leave Canada without an Exeat, or permission, from the Registrar General. Brescia’s fingerprint is visible at the centre left of the certificate. The bottom section includes each date Brescia reported to local authorities, accompanied by the Officer’s initials. According to the document, Brescia first reported on August 2, 1940 and made his last appearance on November 23, 1942.

MAKER
Government of Canada

DATE
ca. 1946

CREDIT LINE
Courtesy of the daughters of Yolanda and Domenico Gaggi

Ration booklet #6 issued to Yolanda Gaggi, of Gatchell (present-day Sudbury), ON, ca. 1942-1947. Both Canadian-born Yolanda and her husband Domenico (naturalized British subject since 1937) were designated as Enemy Aliens.

During the war, the government first asked consumers to reduce the consumption of a select number of goods that were considered in short supply. The intention was to limit the use of imported food and to free up supplies for the war effort. Of particular concern was the availability of butter, sugar and gasoline. The official rationing system began in 1942, when booklets of coupons were issued. Rationed items included meat, tea and coffee. Alcohol and clothing were also on the ration list. 1946 was the last year ration books were produced, but rationing continued until 1947.

MAKER
H. Stethem

DATE
August 13, 1941

CREDIT LINE
Library and Archives Canada, RG 117, Vol. 2039, File 5593

Notice of Release for internee P.826 Antonio Tontoli. The form provide information regarding the internment camp Tontoli has been held at, his place of residence, his release date and the conditions Tontoli must abide by upon his release from camp. The form has been signed by H. Stethem, Colonel, Commissioner of Internment Operations.

According to the form Tontoli was released from Camp Petawawa on August 11, 1941 at 7:25 am. He was required to subscribe to the Undertaking set out in Regulation 24 of the Defence of Canada Regulations, report once a month to the local RCMP in Niagara Falls and he was also forbidden from taking employment in public utilities or with companies or individuals engaged in Government war contracts.

MAKER
Justice of the Peace for the Province of Ontario, District of Cochrane

DATE
June 10, 1940

INSCRIPTIONS
Verso: (Handwritten, pencil):
[may] arrest since / warrant (sec 60) / [but struck-through] if suspicion / but offense committed / but must be / charged in reasonable / time otherwise / Habeas Corpus
can be detained / by order of Min. / of Justice – sec 21 / order of min. of justice / [necl] to arrest – / otherwise Habeas Corpus – / must be [tried] if order / made / by what authority? / retain counsel

CREDIT LINE
With the permission of Mascioli Family

Warrant to search Antonio Mascioli’s home in Timmins, ON, June 10, 1940. Warrant was issued by the Justice of the Peace for the Province of Ontario, District of Cochrane. The back of the document has notes written in pencil, perhaps by Dan Mascioli, the son of Leopoldo Mascioli (Antonio’s brother). Dan worked on his father and uncle’s objections to internment.

Under the Defence of Canada Regulations (DOCR) the Minister of Justice had the ability to intern any individual suspected of acting “in any manner prejudicial to the public safety or the safety of the state.” Under this regulation, habeas corpus – the need to produce evidence against an internee – and the right to a fair trial were suspended. As such, many family members recall their loved ones being arrested and taken without a warrant or other legal paperwork.

However, in this case, a warrant was issued to search the home of Antonio Mascioli for “letters, documents, arms and uniforms”, based on the “oath of C.N. Kirk, RCMP” that these materials were present. It is unclear if like warrants were produced in other cases, or if not, why Mascioli’s situation would prove an exception.

MAKER
Order Sons of Italy

DATE
April 10, 1940

CREDIT LINE
Archives of Ontario, F1405-21, Elena Turroni photographs

Membership certificate of Carmela Di Martile of Welland, ON, for the Order Sons of Italy, April 10, 1940. The certificate was issued from the head office in Toronto.

The Order Sons of Italy (OSI), founded in 1905 by Dr. Vincent Sellaro in New York City, operated as a mutual aid society for those of Italian origin. The first Canadian lodge of this fraternal organization was founded in Sault Ste. Marie in 1915. Fascists attempted to take control of this organization in the 1930s.

The document is signed by the Grand Venerable Dr. Vittorio Sabetta and Grand Administrative Secretary Libero Sauro. Both men were arrested and interned as threats to the safety of the Canadian state.

MAKER
Lt-Col. Commandant, Petawawa Internment Camp

DATE
February 1942

INSCRIPTIONS
Verso:
(Typewritten, black ink, body text):
Your request to visit your husband is / hereby approved, subject to the following conditions: /

(a) Means of identification and reasonable / evidence of relationship shall be produced / before admission to the camp. /

(b) The visit shall take place in the presence / of a member of the camp staff and shall not / exceed thirty minutes duration. /

(c) All conversation during the visit must be / carried on, either in the English or the / French language. /

(d) Parcels or articles brought by the visitor / for an internee, will be handed over to a / member of the camp staff for censorship and / delivery. /

(e) Visitors will not be allowed to take parcels / or articles out of camp. Parcels which they / may bring, not intended for delivery to an / internee, shall be left at the Guard House at / the Camp Barrier. /

(f) Parties of visitors to see any one internee / must comprise immediate relatives and must / not exceed three in number. /

(g) Visiting hours shall be as follows: / 1000 hours to 1200 hours / 1400 hours to 1600 hours / on date designated. /

(h) The Commandant shall be advised at least / twenty-four hours in advance of the probable / hour of arrival at the camp. /

The date arranged for your visit is February 8th 1942. /

Please be advised, that successful applicants, / who contemplate travelling by railway are notified that / the Railway Depot is approximately 14 miles distant from / the camp, but taxis can be procured from Station.

DIMENSIONS
10.5 x 8.5 inches

Guidelines for Visitors, Petawawa Internment Camp, ca. February 1942.

Erminia (Minnie) Bacci and her two sons Aldo and Alfo were able to visit Ruggero Bacci, husband, father and internee, in person at Camp Petawawa. Prior to their visit, they seem to have been sent these guidelines or rules.

During the early stages of internment, family visits were prohibited at the camps. As time passed, it does seem that in rare cases, family members travelled to Petawawa for a brief meeting with a husband or father.

Bacci was interned for almost three years. In his absence, his wife Erminia (Minnie) suffered a serious nervous breakdown and was hospitalized at length. His oldest son Aldo was forced to quit high school to help support the family. When his father was released and returned home, Aldo received notice that he was conscripted into the Canadian Army; however, he did not serve overseas.

MAKER
Government of Canada

DATE
May 25, 1943

INSCRIPTIONS
Recto:
(Typewritten, black ink, body text):

At present of Fredericton Internment Camp, in the / Province of New Brunswick, in the Dominion of / Canada, do hereby declare that I am a Italian National / (subject ([strike-out]

I now in consideration of my release or exemption / from detention as a (subject ([strike-out] of Italy / hereby undertake and promise that I will report / to such Officer or Official and upon such terms / as the Canadian Authorities may from time to time / prescribe. that I will carefully observe and obey / the laws of Canada, and such rules or regulations / as many specially be prescribed for my conduct by / competent authority, that I will strictly abstain / from taking up arms against the Government of this / country and that, except with the permission of the / Officer or Official under whose surveillance I may / be placed, I will strictly abstain from commun- / icating to anyone whomsoever any information concern- / ing the existing war or the movement of troops or / the military preparations which the authorities of / Canada, or the United Kingdom, or any of His Majesty’s / Dominions, or any Allied or Associated Power may make / or concerning the resources of Canada and that I will / do no act and will not encourage the doing of any act / which might be of injury to the Dominion of Canada / or the United Kingdom or any of His Majesty’s Dominions / or any Allied or Associated Power.

DIMENSIONS
11 x 8.5 inches

CREDIT LINE
Courtesy of the Bacci Family

Undertaking, signed by Ruggero Bacci, May 25, 1943. The document is also signed by the Lt-Col. Commandant, Fredericton Internment Camp.

As a condition of release, most internees had to sign an undertaking, which served as a sworn declaration. As in this case, many were standard forms, with set conditions.

MAKER
Commandant, Fredericton Internment Camp

DATE
May 25, 1943

INSCRIPTIONS
Recto:
(Typewritten, purple ink, body text):

152 THE HONOURABLE THE MINISTER OF JUSTICE HAS ORDERED / THE RELEASE OF RUGGERO BACCI HE WILL ARRIVE IN TORONTO ON / MAY TWENTY SIXTH=

DIMENSIONS
ca. 5.5 x ca. 7.5 inches

CREDIT LINE
Courtesy of the Bacci Family

Telegram for Minnie Bacci, annoucing release of Ruggero Bacci, sent at 3:35 pm on May 25, 1943.

MAKER
Government of Canada

DATE
January 01, 1943

DIMENSIONS
5 x 7.5 inches

CREDIT LINE
Courtesy of the Bacci Family

Prisoner’s Receipt for Cash, Fredericton Internment Camp, Jan 1, 1943. The receipt is for $20.00. It is unclear if this receipt is for money Ruggero Bacci received from his wife or for money he sent to his wife.

Internees who were under sixty years old did manual labour or vocational work. Others worked where they were needed. Internees were paid by the Canadian government 25 cents for a day’s work. Internees were not required by the authorities to work every day. In addition, internees could earn money informally by doing camp chores for others, like laundry. Those who were handy, also made things, like wood carvings, and sold them to other internees. Internees could also receive money from their families which would be credited to their camp accounts.

This system is described by Mario Duliani in his book The City Without Women. Diuliani notes that money (paper and coins) was not permitted in camp. Instead, he describes a system where each internee had an account opened through the “Official Accountant”. Against this account, the internee would be issued cardboard notes/chits valued at 5, 10, 25 cents and one dollar. This money could be used to purchase items from the camp canteen such as toothpaste and cigarettes.

Some letters suggest that internees could also send money earned in camp to their families.

MAKER
Unknown

DATE
March 31, 1914

DIMENSIONS
ca. 4 x ca. 5.5 inches

CREDIT LINE
Courtesy of Doug Brombal and Family

Inspection card for all immigrants and steerage passangers. Port of departure is noted as Genoa, aboard the ship Stampalia. The card belongs to immigrant Nereo Brombal, whose last place of residence is noted as Italy. Canada is stamped in light blue ink along the left hand margin. The document has stamps from 1. American Consulate in Genoa, 2. Canadian Gov’t Official, New Yo